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It was the most successful of the English medieval planned towns, rising in wealth above many an older town. He laid out a series of towns between 12 beside his new castles in north Wales, such as Caernarvon and Conway.But as the climate cooled after 1300, famine periodically stalked the land, weakening resistance to infection.Falmouth in Cornwall was established by the swashbuckling Sir John Killigrew of Arwenack House, long occupied by his family and now within the town. Whitehaven, Cumbria, also owes its existence to a local landowner, but this time a newcomer.Sir Christopher Lowther purchased the estate of the former Priory of St Bees in 1630 and in 1634 built a stone pier at the fishing hamlet of Whitehaven.
Some were existing centres like Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Perth and Stirling, which were granted a degree of self-government by royal charter.Others were new creations, often beside a royal castle, such as Roxburgh.New towns continued to spring up in the 13th century, for example Salisbury, created to serve the new cathedral begun in 1220.Few new British towns were founded after that, until populations began to rise once more in modern times.By 1300 about thirty English provincial towns had over 5,000 inhabitants, but none in Wales.