Dating of fossils evolution

If decay rates were faster in the past, then even the C14 dates could be too old.

Carbon 14 is an isotope of carbon with two extra neutrons in the nucleus. The rate at which this happens varies to some extent.

By measuring the C14/C12 ratio, one can get an estimate of the age for the date of a once living object or a fossil, assuming that the production of C14 and its decay rate have been constant in the past.

These estimates are roughly correct for historic time, that is, the past several thousand years.

Each group will have specialists in anatomy and physiology, paleontology, and molecular biology.

Anatomists study the structure of organisms, physiologists study the function of organisms, molecular biologists study genetics, and paleontologists study fossils.

Theodosius Dobzhansky, a geneticist whose work influenced 20th century research on evolutionary theory, said, "Nothing in biology makes sense, except in light of evolution." This quote emphasizes the role of evolution as the most important unifying principle in biology.

Living things might, at first, seem very diverse, but closer inspection reveals a surprising unity.

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In three half-lives the C14 concentration decreases by a factor of 8.

Twenty thousand years is 3.49 half-lives of C14 because 3.49 times 5730 is 20,000.

All these results have been reported in the conventional scientific literature. Pieces of fossilized wood in Oligocene, Eocene, Creta- ceous, Jurassic, Triassic, and Permian rock layers supposedly 32–250 million years old all contain meas- urable radiocarbon, equivalent to “ages” of 20,700 to 44,700 years. Similarly, carefully sampled pieces of coal from ten U. coal beds, ranging from Eocene to Pennsylvanian and supposedly 40–320 million years old, all contained similar radiocarbon levels equivalent to “ages” of 48,000 to 50,000 years.

Even fossilized ammonite shells found alongside fossilized wood in a Cretaceous layer, supposedly 112–120 million years old, contained measurable radiocarbon equivalent to “ages” of 36,400 to 48,710 years.

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