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(d) the husband or wife became an apostate after marriage, (e) husband is unable to consummate the marriage.In each of these cases, the wife must provide four independent witnesses acceptable to the Qadi (religious judge), who has the discretion to declare the evidence unacceptable.A void marriage is a marriage which has no legal recognition (was not legally valid in the first place, i.e. Such a marriage is automatically null, although a declaration of nullity is required to establish this.

The Church of England, the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion, historically had the right to grant annulments, while divorces were "only available through an Act of Parliament." when ministers say, "I pronounce you husband and wife," they not only announce the wedding—they create it by transforming the bride and groom into a married couple. Spiritually, from a sacramental point of view, they are joined together as one in the sight of God.In the canon law of the Catholic Church, an annulment is properly called a "Declaration of Nullity", because according to Catholic doctrine, the marriage of baptized persons is a sacrament and, once consummated and thereby confirmed, cannot be dissolved as long as the parties to it are alive.A "Declaration of Nullity" is not dissolution of a marriage, but merely the legal finding that a valid marriage was never contracted.The principal difference between a void and voidable marriage is that, in the case of the former, because it is invalid from the beginning, it can be voided ex-officio; while in the case of the latter it is only the spouse himself/herself who can ask for an annulment (in some cases such as if the spouse is a minor or mentally disabled a third party representative such as a parent, legal guardian or child protective service can start an annulment acting as the legal representative of said spouse).These differences are very relevant, because they represent the official policy on issues such as forced marriage for instance: if such marriage is classified legally as void - then the state can cancel it even against the will of the spouses; if it is voidable - then the state cannot act in the absence of an application by a spouse even if the state knows the marriage is forced.

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