Iron and steel are produced in the south, just outside the city.
Cairo's main thoroughfare, Corniche, extends from north to south along the east bank of the Nile.
However, the city also reflects Egypt's growing poverty, and it struggles to cope with problems caused by massive population growth, urban sprawl, and a deteriorating infrastructure.
The city of Cairo covers an area of more than 453 sq km (more than 175 sqm), though it is difficult to separate the city from some of its immediate suburbs.
Located nearby is the narrow strip of land known as Garden City, one of the city's newer residential areas.
In the center of the city is the river island of Zamalek (also called Jezerah, meaning "the Island"), which contains the upscale residential and commercial neighborhood also known as Zamalek, the Cairo Opera House (founded in 1869), and the Cairo Tower (1961).