C14 dating and others
The number given after the atom name (carbon) indicates the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom or ion.
Atoms of both isotopes of carbon contain 6 protons.
(The barrel is made deep enough so that we don't have to worry about water overflowing the rim.) Henry Morris argued that if we started filling up our empty barrel it would take 30,000 years to reach the equilibrium point.
Thus, he concluded, if our Earth were older than 30,000 years the incoming water should just equal the water leaking out.
Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are two isotopes of the element carbon.
The difference between carbon-12 and carbon-14 is the number of neutrons in each atom.
Atoms of carbon-12 have 6 neutrons, while atoms of carbon-14 contain 8 neutrons.
Finally, when the water reaches a certain level in the barrel, the amount of water going into the barrel is equal to the amount leaking out the perforated sides.(Strahler, 1987, p.158) Lingenfelter actually attributed the discrepancy between the production and decay rates to possible variations in the earth's magnetic field, a conclusion which would have ruined Morris's argument.Henry Morris chose not to mention that portion of the paper!This argument was popularized by Henry Morris (1974, p.164), who used some calculations done in 1968 by Melvin Cook to get the 10,000-year figure. Whitelaw, using a greater ratio of carbon-14 production to decay, concluded that only 5000 years passed since carbon-14 started forming in the atmosphere!The argument may be compared to filling a barrel which has numerous small holes in its sides.