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Previously, more neurons had been recruited if birds were placed in a complex social setting than if they were kept in a simple one.However, this time no significant differences were found between experimental groups, and recruitment levels were lower and similar to those previously observed in birds that were kept in a simple social setting.In addition, Brd U triggers cell death and the formation of teratomas, alters DNA stability, lengthens cell cycle, and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects on the cells that incorporate it (reviewed in [17]).The delaying effect of Brd U on DNA synthesis and cell division is probably caused by structural changes in the DNA helixes, which occur when a large amount of Brd U is incorporated into both strands of the DNA [18].This technique has been used for decades to investigate various processes in the CNS (e.g., [3–6]) and has been invaluable for the study of the time of origin of neurons in various species, including birds [1], rodents [7], and nonhuman primates [8, 9].However, due to the radioactivity of [H]-thymidine and the relatively long period which is required for autoradiography, over the years analogs have been introduced as an alternative, of which the most commonly used to date is 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (Brd U) [10].

DNA replication of stem cells during the S-phase can be used to birth-date proliferating cells by supplying exogenous markers that are incorporated into the DNA of the cells.

Brd U is commonly used to quantify neurogenesis but also causes mutation and has mitogenic, transcriptional, and translational effects.

In mammalian studies, attention had been given to its dosage, but in birds such examination was not conducted.

Instead, Brd U dosage in avian research is similar to that used in fetal mammals, because of the similar high metabolic rates of the two groups.

Thus, in birds, commonly used doses are ~60–100 mg/kg body mass (e.g., [29–31]).

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